Endocannibalism is a practice of eating the flesh of a human being from the same community (tribe, social group or society), usually after they have died. Endocannibalism has also been used to describe the consumption of relics in a mortuary context. View more at #FactsPediaIn.
As a cultural practice
- Herodotus mentions funerary cannibalism among the Callatiae, a tribe of India. Also, the
Aghorisof northern India consume the flesh of the dead floated in the Ganges in pursuit of immortality and supernatural powers.
- It is believed that some South American indigenous cultures, such as the
Mayoruna people, practiced endocannibalism in the past. The Amahuaca Indians of Peru picked particles of bone out of the ashes of a cremation fire, ground them with corn, and drank as a kind of gruel.
- For the Wari’ people in
Western Brazil, endocannibalism is an act of compassion where the roasted remains of fellow Wari’ are consumed in a mortuary setting; ideally, the affines would consume the entire corpse, and rejecting the practice would be offensive to the direct family members. Ya¸nomamoconsumed the ground-up bones and ashes of cremated kinsmen in an act of mourning; this is still classified as endocannibalism, although, strictly speaking, “flesh” is not eaten. Such practices were generally not believed to have been driven by need for protein or other food.
Prehistory of endocannibalism controversy
Whether or not endocannibalism was commonplace through much of human prehistory remains controversial. A team led by Michael Alpers, a lifelong investigator of the Kuru disease, found genes that protect against similar prion diseases were widespread, suggesting that such endocannibalism could have once been common around the world.
However, a later study by Simon Mead et al. of the University College London has since shown that the protective G127V variant of the prion protein gene PRNP is only commonplace in the areas with the highest incidence of Kuru – it is not commonplace in the global population. The relatively rare (but widespread) occurrence of G127V in the global population could therefore be explained as random mutation.
This is evidence that cannibalism may not have been widespread among humanity, as the kuru disease is the only known prion disease that spreads by human cannibalism. Were cannibalism widespread, G127V would have to be commonplace by evolutionary necessity – but it isn’t. The only way by which cannibalism could have been widespread would be if kuru was not the only prion to spread by human cannibalism.
Cultures in which it occurs
- Jukun people
- Fore people
- South America
- Amahuaca people
- Wari’ people
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